Erythrocyte-encapsulated asparaginase combined with chemotherapy in second-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer: An open-label, randomized Phase IIb trial

2019 – European Journal of Cancer

This Phase IIb (NCT02195180) open-label study evaluated erythrocyte-encapsulated asparaginase in combination with chemotherapy in second-line advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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Drug-loaded erythrocytes: on the road toward marketing approval

2016 – Drug Design, Development and Therapy

Erythrocyte drug encapsulation is one of the most promising therapeutic alternative approaches for the administration of toxic or rapidly cleared drugs. Drug-loaded erythrocytes can operate through one of the three main mechanisms of action: extension of circulation half-life (bioreactor), slow drug release, or specific organ targeting. Although the clinical development of erythrocyte carriers is confronted with regulatory and development process challenges, industrial development is expanding. The manufacture of this type of product can be either centralized or bedside based, and different procedures are employed for the encapsulation of therapeutic agents. The major challenges for successful industrialization include production scalability, process validation, and quality control of the released therapeutic agents. Advantages and drawbacks of the different manufacturing processes as well as success key points of clinical development are discussed. Several entrapment technologies based on osmotic methods have been industrialized. Companies have already achieved many of the critical clinical stages, thus providing the opportunity in the future to cover a wide range of diseases for which effective therapies are not currently available.

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A Phase 2 study of L-asparaginase encapsulated in erythrocytes in elderly patients with Philadelphia chromosome negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The GRASPALL/GRAALL-SA2-2008 study

2015 – American Journal of Hematology

The GRASPALL/GRAALL-SA2-2008 Phase II trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of L-asparaginase encapsulated within erythrocytes in patients ≥ 55 years with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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Asparagine Synthetase Expression and Phase I Study With L-Asparaginase Encapsulated in Red Blood Cells in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

2015 – Pancreas

Asparaginase encapsulated in erythrocytes is a potentially effective drug in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) with null/low asparagine synthetase (ASNS) expression. Our aims were to assess ASNS expression in PAC from a large cohort and its prognostic and/or predictive value and to conduct a phase I trial with eryaspase in patients with metastatic PAC.

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